Texas has been inhabited for thousands of years, but very little about its history prior to its discovery by Europeans has been preserved. In 1492, Christopher Columbus made his fabled voyage from Spain across the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the island of Hispañola in the Caribbean Sea. In the decades to follow, Columbus and numerous others found and mapped new lands as far as their ships could carry them throughout the Atlantic coasts of North, Central, and South America. The part of the Gulf of Mexico that forms the southern coast of the United States, including Texas, was one of the last coastal areas to be explored. It was not mapped until 1519.
Spain's early attempts to place settlements in the present-day U.S. focused exclusively on Florida and the south Atlantic coast. These attempts were sporadic and unsuccessful. One of them was an expedition launched by Pánfilio de Narváez in 1527. Even though this expedition was a notable disaster, it did result in the first presence on Texas soil by Europeans - or any other non-indigenous people, for that matter - and gave Spain its first intelligence about the land to the north of Mexico. Four of Narváez's men, including Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca, spent seven years living with the natives in Texas and wandering through the land. Cabeza de Vaca's detailed, vivid, and fascinating account of his travels is the oldest known written history of Texas.
The articles below descibe how Texas was discovered, beginning with Columbus's first voyage to the Gulf of Mexico to Cabeza de Vaca's epic journey.