Alamo Personnel - February 1, 1836 Voting Roll


A voting roll from an election held on February 1, 1836 gives us the names of 100 men who were in the Texian army in San Antonio on that date, three weeks before the siege of the Alamo began.

At the beginning of 1836, the Texas Revolution was underway. The Texian army had secured a string of victories over the Mexican centralists loyal to Santa Anna - most importantly, driving the Mexican army out of the city of San Antonio de Bexar. Many of the Texian volunteers involved in that conflict either went to their homes or joined other campaigns in the Revolution. Only about a hundred men who fought in the Bexar campaign remained in the city, under the command of Col. James C. Neill. During January, some more volunteers arrived, including a group that came in with James Bowie on January 19, 1836, and another with Captain Philip Dimmitt on January 24. Others continued to leave.

At that time, the provisional government that was assembled in late 1835 was fractured and ineffective. Texians did not even know what their government's stance was on the question of Texas independence. In December 1835, the call went out for a political convention to be held at Washington-on-the-Brazos on March 1, 1836. Delegates to the convention would decide whether to declare independence or not and form a new government. Local elections to choose delegates were to be held on February 1.

The Bexar Garrison Election

The provisional government that called for elections was unable to arrive at any agreement over who would be eligible to vote. One of the biggest questions was whether there should be a residency requirement. Many long-time colonists and settlers, especially those who were not in favor of Texas declaring independence from Mexico, believed there ought to be a residency requirement, saying that the men who had arrived since the fighting started in October were unfamiliar with both the issues and the people. The men who recently arrived to join the army, however, argued that their service to Texas entitled them to a say in its affairs. Each district handled this question differently, and not always without conflict. In Bexar, the local residents, many of whom were native Tejanos, held their election, while the men of Neill's garrison held their own.

According to the voting roll, 100 men voted in the Bexar garrison election. There were two delegate positions to fill. The candidates for the first position were Samuel A. Maverick and J. M. Hays. One man voted for Hays. Maverick did not cast a vote, while Hays and everyone else voted for Maverick, making the final result Maverick 98, Hays 1. The candidates for the second delegate position were Jesse Badgett and James B. Bonham. Bonham did not vote in either election, but he received one vote (from the same man who voted for Hays). Badgett and four other voters abstained from that election. The final result was Badgett 94, Bonham 1. A total at the bottom of the roll incorrectly shows that Maverick received 103 votes, Badgett 100, and Hays and Bonham 1 each.

Maverick lived in San Antonio, and neither he nor Badgett left right away. Badgett was still in town as of February 17, but he left in time to be seated at the convention at Washington-on-the-Brazos on March 1. Maverick stayed home too long and ran into trouble with heavy rains getting to the convention. He arrived late, between March 3 and March 5. He may have still been in San Antonio when Santa Anna's forces arrived on February 23.

The Voting Roll

The original specimen of the Bexar garrison voting roll still exists. (Presumably, Badgett took it with him to Washington to serve as his credentials to be seated as a convention delegate.) It consists of two folios, one with names written on the front and back, and a second with names and totals written on the front and a signed certificate on the back. The certificate repeats the error about the number of votes cast and the number of votes received by Maverick and Badgett.

The images are presented below reduced in size so that they can be seen side-by-side. To see the full-size image, click on the smaller image or on one of the links below:

Bexar garrison voting roll, page 1 Bexar garrison voting roll, page 2 Bexar garrison voting roll, page 3 Bexar garrison voting roll, page 4

Names on the Voting Roll

The table below contains our transcription of the names on the Bexar garrison voting roll. As with most historical documents, the voting roll contains many abbreviations and misspellings. Our first column, "Normalized Name," gives the person's full name, correctly spelled. The names on our list have been sorted alphabetically. The second and third columns show the transcribed name - misspellings and all - and the position it has on the written roll. The remaining columns provide a bit more information about each person. His age, where available, is given. In many cases, only the man's birth year is known, so two possible ages are given, with the lower one being more likely. The column headed "Neill Roll?" indicates whether the man was included in a muster roll of the Bexar garrison taken by Colonel Neill approximately in mid-January. Finally, the "Status" column shows what is known about what happened to the man after the vote.

Note: although every effort has been made to be accurate, it is possible that we have missed something or made a copy-and-paste error or typo. If you spot something wrong, please contact us.

Normalized NameTranscribed NameLineAgeNeill Roll?Status
Anderson, A.A. Anderson100yesKIB on 3/6
Andross, Mills D.Mills Andress9526 or 27yesdied at the Alamo
Asner, CharlesChar. Asner43nounknown
Atkinson, Milton B.Milton Atkinson47yesfought at San Jacinto
Badgett, JesseJeſse B. Badget4128 or 29noleft after the vote, survived the revolution
Baker, William C. M.W. C. M Baker64noKIB on 3/6
Ballard, JohnJno Ballard54nosurvived the revolution
Ballentine, John J.Jam J. Valentine2828 or 29yesKIB on 3/6
Batinesh, L.L. Batinesh67nounknown
Baugh, John J.J. Baugh8032 or 33yesKIB on 3/6
Bell, WilliamWm Bell39yessurvived the revolution
Blair, JohnJno. Blair6033?noKIB on 3/6
Blazeby, WilliamWmBlazeby7740 or 41yesKIB on 3/6
Bowie, JamesJames Bowie4444noKIB on 3/6
Byrnes, JohnJn Burns13yesKIB on 3/6
Carey, William R.W. R. Carey8529 or 30yesKIB on 3/6
Crossman, RobertRobert Croſser87yesKIB on 3/6
Cunningham, Robert W.R. W. Cunningham9131yesKIB on 3/6
Damon, SquireSquire Dayman2227 or 28yesKIB on 3/6
Dickinson, AlmaronA   Dickenson6125 or 26noKIB on 3/6
Dimkin, JamesJames Dickins1134?yesKIB on 3/6
Duff, J.J. Duff31nounknown
Duel, LewisLewis Duel5523 or 24yesKIB on 3/6
Esparza, José GregorioGregorio5127noKIB on 3/6
Evans, RobertG. Evans1435 or 36yesKIB on 3/6
Evans, Samuel B.S. B. Evans8124noKIB on 3/6
Fagan, George M.Geo M Fagan75nounknown
Fitch, JabezJ. Fitch36yesdischarged, survived the revolution
Flores, SalvadorCaptn Flores5634 or 35nosurvived the revolution
García, José MaríaHasey Maria Garcia90nounknown
Garner, James T.James T. Garner59noin the army on 4/2
Garvin, John E.Garven5826 or 27noKIB on 3/6
Garrand, James W.? Geronne8822 or 23yesKIB on 3/6?
Gaymes, G.G. Gemmys35yesunknown
Grimes, Alfred C.C. Grimes2118noKIB on 3/6
Harris, JohnJn Harris922 or 23noKIB on 3/6
Haskell, Charles M.C. C. Hieskell2622 or 23yesKIB on 3/6
Hawkins, Joseph M.M Hawkins1936 or 37noKIB on 3/6
Hays, John M.J. M. Hays3321 or 22noKIB on 3/6
Heagl, WilliamWm Heagl93nounknown
Hersee, William D.Wm Hearsy3830 or 31yesdied at the Alamo
Herndon, P. H.P. H Herndon63noKIB on 3/6
Heter, I. W.I. W. Heter29nounknown
Hilegor, A.A. Hilegor74nounknown
Holland, TapleyT. Holland6525 or 26yesKIB on 3/6
Holloway, SamuelSaml Holoway1727 or 28yesKIB on 3/6
Ingram, JamesJames Ingraham20yesKIB on 3/6
Jackson, J.J. Jackson3428yesKIB on 3/6
Jameson, Green B.G B Jameson228 or 29yesunknown
Johnson, H.H. Johnson79nounknown
Johnson, JohnJno Johnson83nosurvived the revolution
Johnson, LewisLewis Johnson66yesKIB on 3/6
Johnston, Harrison?H. Johnson6yesunknown
Jones, JohnJn. Jones125 or 26yesKIB on 3/6
Lebant, H.H. Lebant84nounknown
Lewis, JamesJames Lewis10yeswas in the Texian army on 3/23
Lightfoot, William J.Wm. Lightfoot53yesdischarged on 2/10
Lindley, JonathanJonathan Lindley2322yesKIB on 3/6
Linn, WilliamWm Lynn78yesKIB on 3/6
Main, George W.G. W Maine9928 or 29yesKIB on 3/6
Malone, William T.Wm. T. Malom4818yesKIB on 3/6
Marshall, WilliamWm. Marshall7027 or 28yesKIB on 3/6
Maverick, Samuel AugustusS. A. Maverick6232noleft on 2/23 or earlier, survived the revolution
McGee, JamesJames McGee86yesKIB on 3/6
McGregor, JohnJno McGregor4027 or 28yesKIB on 3/6
McManomy, J. B.J. B. McManemy5noleft before 2/23, killed at Goliad on 3/27
Melton, ElielE. Melton6837 or 38yesKIB on 3/6
Mitchell, Napoleon B.N. D. Mitchell3731 or 32yesKIB on 3/6
Moore, Robert B.Robt. Moore9644 or 45yesKIB on 3/6
Morcan, JohnJno Morcan89nounknown, possible KIB John Morman?
Musselman, Robert F.T. Muſsulman1530 or 31yesKIB on 3/6
Nash, James H.J. H. Nash16noin Gonzales on 2/23
Neill, James C,J. C. Neill49about 47yesleft on 2/11, survived the revolution
Nelson, EdwardE. Nelson7319 or 20noKIB on 3/6
Nelson, GeorgeH. G. Nelson2430 or 31yesKIB on 3/6
Noland, H.H. Noland98nounknown
Parker, Christopher A.C. Parker46noKIB on 3/6
Perry, RichardsonR. Perry418 or 19yesKIB on 3/6
Pevehouse, JohnJno. Pevyhause52yesdischarged on 2/12, survived the revolution
Pevehouse, PrestonP. Pevyhouse30yesdischarged on 2/10, survived the revolution
Roth, JacobJacob Roth50noKIB on 3/6
Rusk, WilliamWm Rusk97nounknown
Russell, Robert W.R W Ruſsell8yesdischarged on 2/13, survived the revolution
Rutherford, JosephJa. Rutherford76yesKIB on 3/6
Ryan, ThomasThos Ryan18yessurvived the revolution
Sheid, MansonM. Shidol1224 or 25yesKIB on 3/6
Smith, L.Lm[?]Smith69nounknown
Smith, William H.Wm Smith724 or 25yesKIB on 3/6
Spratt, WilliamWm. Spratt71yesKIB on 3/6
Starr, RichardRich'd Starr324 or 25yesKIB on 3/6
Thomas, WilliamWm. Thomas94yesunknown
Walker, AsaAsa Walker4222 or 23yesKIB on 3/6
Waters, ThomasThos. Walten9231yesKIB on 3/6
Warnell, HenryHenry Warnell57noleft during either the siege or battle and subsequently died
Washington, GeorgeGeo Washington45yessurvived the revolution
Wilson, DavidD. Wilson8228 or 29noKIB on 3/6
Wolf, AnthonyA. Wlf7254yesKIB on 3/6
Wood, M. R.M. R. Wood25nounknown
Wyatt, C. C.C. C. Wyatt27yesunknown
Zanco, CharlesC. Lanco3227 or 28yesKIB on 3/6


An analysis of the Alamo voting roll reveals the following facts:

  • The men of the San Antonio garrison apparently believed that anyone who was willing to fight was entitled to vote. Even though the minimum age to vote was 21 in the United States, where most of these men were from, at least 2 of the voters were 18 years old, and at least 2 others were under 21.
  • 60 voters were on Col. Neill's muster roll, meaning they had been in San Antonio since probably at least mid-January. Most of the other 40 probably entered San Antonio in about the two weeks prior to the election, although some, like Gregorio Esparza, were residents of San Antonio, and others, such as Almaron Dickinson, had previously been there, left, and returned.
  • As many as 24 men who are listed on Neill's muster roll are not known or suspected of leaving San Antonio afterward and are believed to have died in the Alamo battle on March 6, 1836, but they do not appear on this voting roll. Either they left San Antonio and returned without leaving any trace of their movements, or they simply did not vote in the election.
  • 60 voters are known or believed to have died at the Alamo. Another died of wounds after leaving. 19 voters left before the battle. What became of the other 20 is unknown.

By David Carson
Page last updated: November 14, 2023

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